The participation and evaluation of the individual in the traditional political system is very deep and important in such political culture. If there is a kind of attitude among the people about important political issues in the political culture, then there is political stability. It is easy to get rid of the crisis if people’s attitudes are favorable to political institutions during the crisis period of the country. This state of affairs creates a wonderful opportunity to judge modern political cultures by way of the civicness question. By contrast, Rokkan focused on a more limited area that is relatively homogeneous in terms of historical, cultural, political, and economic development.

  • The behaviorist approach, whose roots lie in experimental psychology, has greatly stimulated the operational definition of citizens’ opinions, attitudes, and value orientations.
  • Subject – Where citizens are aware of central government, and are heavily subjected to its decisions with little scope for dissent.
  • It is transmitted to new members of the political community through socialization.
  • It is often seen that different sections of society have different political orientations and agendas.
  • It ensures the right of local organizations to participate in the provision of education which will promote the decentralization of educational management .

With males in the dominant positions “media industries … existing technologies to break up and reformulate media texts for reasons of their own”. People no longer blindly absorb and consume what large media corporations distribute. Today there are a great deal of people who are consumers who also produce their own content (referring to “prosumers”).

With Social Network:

This helps you develop your own political views by listening to what other people have to say. It’s great to have an opinion on a political issue, but also very important that you’re prepared to listen to what others think. By listening to other opinions you get to see things from another point of view which might change how you feel. When the political system has been categorized and characterized by the same rules, values, beliefs, that is when such a political system is called Homogeneous Political Culture. Although this political system may have different parties and subgroups, they share common beliefs, ideas, and culture.

India is such an example of a country where numerous politically diverse subcultures are present. There is also a difference in the rulers and the ruled in the political subculture. The subculture may be introduced by elite class or some other class of people but there will be certain people who will not be able to cope up with it. It is often seen that different sections of society have different political orientations and agendas. In this way different sections of the society may have different political orientations. So when a particular section of the society is clearly distinguishable from others in the same political system, then we find that it has developed a distinct political sub-culture of its own, France is the classic example of such sub-cultures.

On the contrary, the structure of the existing political system, with disagreement among the people in the context of the tasks, poses a serious hostility to the political system. There is no comparison between different nations but an analysis of a single nation, Italy, with various research techniques. The comparative design regards the Italian regions, thereby emphasizing within-state differences and reducing the risk of comparing cases that are too heterogeneous.


Since technology and design is at the crux of the creation of participatory culture “much can – and should – be said about who does what, and it is fair to raise the question of whether an industry of men can design for women”. Local enhancement is the driving mechanism that influences the audience to embody and recreate the messages produced in media. Statistically, men are actively engaging in the production of these problematic representations, whereas, women are not contributing to the portrayal of women experiences because of local enhancement that takes place on the web. There is no exact number to determine the precise percentage for female users; in 2011 there were numerous surveys that slightly fluctuate in numbers, but none seem to surpass 15 percent. This shows a large disparity of online users in regards to gender when looking at Wikipedia content. Bias arises as the content presented in Wikipedia seems to be more male oriented.

This applies even in cases where presidents are elected by direct vote and are endowed with special powers, as occurs in France and Portugal. Most of the political parties and pressure groups are categorized in participant political culture and they decide for themselves as to what role they can play. Individuals also participate in the activities of a political system and a part of evaluation and criticism process in the system.

In a participant political culture, like the United Kingdom and the United States, citizens are informed and actively participate in the political process. It refers to historically-based, widely-shared beliefs, feelings, and values about the nature of political systems, which can serve as a link between citizens and government. Recent advances in technologies have enabled private persons to create and publish such media, usually through the Internet. Since the technology now enables new forms of expression and engagement in public discourse, participatory culture not only supports individual creation but also informal relationships that pair novices with experts. Improving education to be in harmony with economic and social change means that the government is committed to initiate educational reform whenever it is necessary to keep up with the pace of change. Besides, it is provided in the constitution, for the first time, that all Thai people will have an equal right to receive basic education, for at least 12years, of good quality and free of charge .