Similarly, liberalism draws upon the work of Kant and Rousseau, with the work of the former often being cited as the first elaboration of democratic peace theory. In the 20th century, in addition to contemporary theories of liberal internationalism, Marxism has been a foundation of international relations. What is explicitly recognized as international relations theory was not developed until after World War I, and is dealt with in more detail below.

  • International organisations are in consequence merely seen as tools for individual states used to further their own interests, and are thought to have little power in shaping states’ foreign policies on their own.
  • Students who achieve a C grade average should be considered for year one entry .
  • If you have not applied for the four year, study abroad degree you can still apply to study abroad for a year in an approved university around the world if you have achieved a grade of 2.1.
  • For GCSE, from the lower school leaving certificate, the same equivalences would apply.

Candidates from Peru generally require a) A levels or IB Diploma or b) a recognised foundation programme or c) successfully completed the first year of the Título de Licenciado with at least 13/20. For study on our Foundation and Undergraduate programmes English language at grade C or above in the CIE O Level or Cambridge High School Certificate is sufficient to meet the standard English language requirements. For study on our Foundation and Undergraduate programmes, English language at grade C or above in the Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education is sufficient to meet the standard English language requirements.

Often you find that the research had been conducted by teachers at the university. It means that you have high quality and reliable knowledge of the subject you are studying. You can transfer onto our 4-year Year Abroad track during your time at Birmingham and benefit from the increased confidence and different academic perspective gained bystudying in a foreign country. Our international relations degree will help you understand the complexities of relationships between different countries and how they engage with each other to effectively manage a wide range of problems on a global scale. If you’re interested in using your degree to work in the media, try writing for your university newspaper, blogging or writing for an online publication.

Holders of the Tawjihiyya are not usually eligible for direct entry onto our undergraduate courses without completion of a suitable foundation programme, such as one of our foundation pathways. We will consider students who have taken GCE A Level examinations or the International Baccalaureate for entrance to onto our undergraduate programmes. Holders of the Thanewiyah are not normally eligible for direct entry onto our undergraduate courses without completion of a suitable foundation programme, such as one of our foundation pathways.


The University will consider students who have taken GCE A Level examinations, the International Baccalaureate , or a suitable foundation programme, such as theFoundation Pathwaysat the BIA, for entrance to undergraduate programmes. Candidates offering the Caribbean Advanced Proficiency Examination qualification can be considered for entry to the first year of an undergraduate degree programme. CAPE is graded on a I to VI scale and we would typically look for a minimum of II in each subject taken to include I in any required subject and for AAA-AAB offers to include a at least half the subjects at grade I.

Working for a charity or non-governmental organisation is another popular area of work and these can be good areas for volunteering or paid work experience. Volunteering can be a useful way of developing experience either in the UK or overseas. Your donations help us to support the International Studies community through research, events and funding, and give us the ability to advocate on your behalf.

Feminist IR has not only concerned itself with the traditional focus of IR on states, wars, diplomacy and security, but feminist IR scholars have also emphasized the importance of looking at how gender shapes the current global political economy. In this sense, there is no clear cut division between feminists working in IR and those working in the area of International Political Economy . From its inception, feminist IR has also theorized extensively about men and, in particular, masculinities. Many IR feminists argue that the discipline is inherently masculine in nature. For example, in her article “Sex and Death in the Rational World of Defense Intellectuals” Signs , Carol Cohn claimed that a highly masculinized culture within the defence establishment contributed to the divorcing of war from human emotion. The realist framework of international relations rests on the fundamental assumption that the international state system is an anarchy, with no overarching power restricting the behaviour of sovereign states.

To cope with this variety, IR now has a very wide focus and a considerable collection of sub-disciplines. But as a start, take a look at the different sections or working groups of professional associations such as the International Studies Association in the US, the British International Studies Association and the European International Studies Association . Take a look also at the contents of some sub-disciplinary journals – Security Studies, Review of International Political Economy, Foreign Policy Analysis or International Political Sociology. International Relations is a diverse interdisciplinary degree, meaning it is built of many different topics and you can choose which bits interest you. Taught Master’s on the other hand are more like Bachelor’s degrees in their structure, but may still require significant self-reliant research projects such as a dissertation.

Critical Theory Post

Throughout your degree you will be taught by lecturers who have worked in the field of political science and international relations as well as world leading researchers. You can learn more about the staff in the school by visiting theSchool of Government staff pages. Many students who have studied in the Philippines have followed a 12 year education system. For admission onto an undergraduate degree programme, the University of Birmingham requires all applicants to have studied for 13 years, and therefore you may need to take a foundation year before commencing your undergraduate programme. We will consider students who have taken A Level examinations and the International Baccalaureate for entrance to undergraduate programmes.

Constructivism is part of critical theory, and as such seeks to criticise the assumptions underlying traditional IR theory. E.g., prominent US policy makers frequently spoke of the USSR as an ‘evil empire’, and thus socialised the US population and state apparatus into an anti-communist sentiment, which defined the norms conducted in US foreign policy. International studies is in all cases referring to the broader multidisciplinary IR field, where also global economics, law, and world history form central components of scholarship.